06. tbl. 103. árg. 2017

A prospective study on acute poisonings presenting to the Emergency Department at Landspitali University Hospital in Iceland 2012

Framskyggn rannsókn á eitrunum sem komu til meðferðar á bráðamóttökum Landspítala 2012

Introduction: The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence and type of toxic exposures presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) at Landspitali University Hospital in Iceland over one year and compare the results to another study performed eleven years before.

Methods: The study was prospective and included all visits due to acute poisoning to the ED between January 1, and December 31, 2012.

Results: A total of 977 toxic exposures were documented. Females were 554 (57%) and males 423 (43%). The age range was from 2 months to 96 years old. More than half of the patients were under 30 years old. The majority of exposures occurred in private homes and ingestion was the most common route of exposure. Deliberate poisonings accounted for 66% of all the poisonings and 76% had drugs and/or alcohol as their main cause. Exposures to chemicals other than drugs were usually unintentional and 31% of them were occupational exposures. 80% of patients received treatment and were discharged from the ED, 20% were admitted to other departments, thereof  21% to ICU. Two patients died (0.2%).

Conclusion: A slight but statistically unsignificant increase in incidence was observed. Females outnumbered males. Self-poisonings by ingestion of drugs and/or alcohol accounted for the majority of cases. The age range was wide, but the incidence was higher with young people. Mortality was low.

Figure I

Figure II

Figure III

Table I The most common classes of drugs according to categories of poisoning.

Table II Patients outcome after discharge from the Emergency department.


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