10. tbl. 101. árg. 2015

Prevalence of sport injuries, sport participation and drop out due to injury in young adults

Algengi íþróttameiðsla, íþróttaþátttaka og brottfall vegna meiðsla hjá 17 og 23 ára ungmennum

Introduction: Sport participation has increased during the past few decades, with accompanying rise in sport injuries. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sport injuries, and drop-out due to them along with possible risk factors (hours of sports participation, sex, age, aerobic fitness and body composition). 

Material and methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional design was used and the 457 participants were 17 and 23 years old. Height, weight, body fat, lean soft tissue, bone mass, and aerobic fitness (W/kg) were measured. Participation in sports and physical training, and the prevalence of sport injuries and drop-out were estimated using questionnaires. 

Results: Four hundred and forty participants (96%) had at some time point participated in organized sports, but 277 (63%) were no longer practicing, more commonly (p=0.058) among girls (67.6%) than boys (58.8%). Thirty-seven (8.4%) dropped-out due to sport injuries. Of those participating in organized sports for the past 12 months, 51% required medical assistance at least once because of sport injuries. Multiple regression analysis revealed 5-fold increased risk for requiring medical assistance among those practicing more than 6 hours per week compared to those who practiced 6 hours or less (OR = 5.30, 95% CI: 3.00 to 9.42). 

Conclusion: Youth sport injuries are a significant problem that can cause drop-out from participation in sport. More research is needed to better understand the impact of risk factors in order to promote prevention and ensure evidence-based training.


Table I. Sample size, year of birth and participation in organized sports and physical training  
  Sample (n) % Men (n) % Women (n) % p-value
Sample size 457   242 53 215 47
Year of birth (age)             0.629
1994 (17) 256 56 133 55 123 57.2
1988 (23) 201 44 109 45 92 42.8
Organized sports             0.058
≥2 times/week 163 37 96 41.2 67 32.4
No longer practicing 277 63 137 58.8 140 67.6
Organized sports and/or
physical training (hrs/week)
        0.001
≤ 6 275 66.3 132 59.2 143 74.5  
> 6 140 33.7 91 40.8 49 25.5  

 


Table II. Time loss from organized sports and drop-out due to sport injury
  (n=440) % Men (n=234) % Women   (n=206) %
Never 183 41.6 87 37.2 96 46.6
Less than one week 60 13.6 41 17.5 19 9.2
1 - 3 weeks 72 16.4 36 15.4 36 17.5
More than 3 weeks 88 20 54 23.1 34 16.5
Drop-out due to injury 37 8.4 16 6.8 21 10.2

 


Table III.  Descriptive characteristics of subjects participating in organized sports and/or physical training
  Weekly exposure, hrs/week
  ≤6 (n=275) >6 hr (n=140)  
  (n) Mean (SE) (n) Mean (SE) p-value
Women    
Height, cm 143 167.0 (6.5) 49 167.0 (5.6) 0.913
Weight, kg 143 65.6 (11.8) 49 63.8 (8.2) 0.317
BMI, kg/m² 143 23.4 (3.9) 49 22.9 (3.2) 0.373
Fat mass, kg 115 21.9 (7.8) 47 18.7 (5.2) 0.01
Fat mass, % 115 33.1 (6.6) 47 28.9 (5.3) <0.001
LST, kg 115 40.4 (4.8) 47 42.8 (4.6) 0.005
LST, % 115 63.1 (6.5) 47 67.2 (5.0) <0.001
Bone mass, kg 115 2.4 (0.3) 47 2.4 (0.3) 0.168
Bone mass, % 115 3.7 (0.5) 47 3.8 (0.4) 0.075
AF, (W/kg) 112 2.3 (0.4) 40 2.8 (0.4) <0.001
Men          
Height, cm 132 181.0 (6.8) 91 180.0 (6.2) 0.27
Weight, kg 132 79.4 (19.9) 91 76.1 (12.2) 0.157
BMI, kg/m² 132 24.1 (5.5) 91 23.4 (3.2) 0.252
Fat mass, kg 110 18.8 (13.6) 74 14.2 (6.9) 0.008
Fat mass, % 110 22.0 (8.3) 74 17.5 (5.9) <0.001
LST, kg 110 57.5 (7.9) 74 61.0 (7.2) 0.003
LST, % 110 74.1 (8.1) 74 78.6 (5.9) <0.001
Bone mass, kg 110 3.0 (0.5) 74 3.2 (0.5) 0.003
Bone mass, % 110 3.9 (0.6) 74 4.2 (0.4) 0.002
AF, (W/kg) 113 3.0 (0.6) 85 3.3 (0.5) <0.001
Abbreviations: SE, standard error of estimate;  BMI, body mass index; LST, lean soft tissue;
AF, aerobic fitness

 

 

Table IV.  Multivariate analysis of sport injury risk (MA) according to weekly exposure
  n (%) Model 1 Model 2ᵃ Model 3ᵇ
Hours of practice No MA MA OR 95% CI  ORᵃ 95% CI ORᵇ 95% CI
≤6 hours a week  222 (81.6) 50 (18.4) 1 Referent 1 Referent 1 Referent
>6 hours a week 63 (45.3) 76 (54.7) 5.36 3.40 - 8.43 4.13 2.46- 6.93 5.3 3.00 - 9.42
Abbreviations: MA, medical assistance the last 12 month; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio
ᵃ Adjustment was made for aerobic fitness
ᵇ Adjustment was made for aerobic fitness and fat mass percentage








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