12. tbl. 100. árg. 2014

Economic differences in healthy eating

Introduction. Here we compare results on food and nutrient intake from the two most recent Icelandic national nutrition surveys from 2010/11 and 2002 and compare intake of energy giving nutrients from 1990. Finally we assess associations beween a healthy diet and difficulties people have in making ends meet.

Materials and methods. Participants were selected by a random sample from the national register. Final sample was 1912 individuals in 2010/11 and 1934 in 2002, response rate 68.6% and 70.6% respectively. Diet was assessed by 24-hour recall. Results from the surveys were calculated using t-test and sssociations between a healthy diet and difficulties making ends meet by linear regression.

Results. Consumption of bread, bisquits, cakes and cookies, margarine, highly processed meat products, chips, sugared soft drinks and whole milk was lower in 2010/11 than in 2002 while consumption of whole grain bread, oat meal, fruits, vegetables, meat and cod liver oil was higher. Fish intake was unchanged. Fat intake decreased from 1990 to 2010/11, from 41E% to 35E%, saturated fatty acids from 20.0E% to 14.5E% and trans-fatty acids from 2.0E% to 0.8E%. Most of the changes occurred between 1990 and 2002. People having difficulties making ends meet consumed less fruits, vegetables and whole grain bread but more soft drinks in 2010/11 than those not having difficulties.

Conclusion. Dietary changes in Iceland from 2002 have mostly been toward recommended intake. Between 1990 and 2002 fat consumption decreased considerably, while less significant changes occurred from 2002 til 2010/11. Economic status is associated with healthy diet in Iceland.


Table I.  Consumption of selected major foods, national surveys 2002 and 2010/11,

Mean (sd) g/day. Both sexes, age 18-80 years

 

2002

n=1174

2010/11

n=1312

p-value1 Difference
Milk and milk products total 388 (377) 300 (232) <0,001 -23%
Whole milk 95 (205) 59 (138) <0,001 -39%
Cheese 36 (42) 35 (31) 0,3 -5%
Bread, total 117 (94) 95 (61) <0,001 -19%
Bread, whole grain 12 (28) 22 (33) <0,001 80%
Cakes and cookies 59 (106) 47 (62) 0,001 -19%
Oat meal porridge 14 (64) 29 (70) <0,001 106%
Vegetables, total 101 (109) 120 (100) <0,001 19%
Fruits and berries, total 77 (113) 119 (120) <0,001 54%
Fish and fish products 41 (77) 46 (62) 0,08 12%
Meat and meat products 111 (114) 130 (103) 0,001 17%
Highly processed meat 28 (62) 22 (39) 0,001 -24%
Butter, butter products 12 (19) 12 (14) 0,7 -2%
Margarine 6 (13) 4 (5) <0,001 -32%
Vegetable oils 2 (8) 2 (5) 0,8 4%
Cod liver oil 1,3 (3,1) 1,8 (3,3) <0,001 40%
Soft drinks, total 261(429) 238 (339) 0,1 -9%
Sugared soft drinks 180 (373) 127 (249) <0,001 -29%
Protein- and diet drinks 8 (63) 15 (65) 0,007 83%
Sweets 16 (41) 17 (28) 0,8 2%
Chips and pop corn 8 (26) 6 (16) 0,02 -25%

1 t-test

 


Table II. Selected nutrients, nutrition surveys 2002 and 2010/11,

Mean/day (sd), both sexes, age 18-80 years

 

2002

n=1174

2010/11

n=1312

p-value1 Difference
Energy, kcal 2130 (996) 2059 (725) 0,06 -3%
Protein, g 90 (41) 90 (35) 0,04 0%
Fat, total, g 88 (52) 85 (37) 0.2 -3%
SFA2, g 36.8 (24.1) 34.2 (16.6) 0.002 -7%
n-3 LPUFA3, g 0.7 (1.1) 0.8 (1.2) 0.003 19%
Trans – FA4, g 3.4 (2.9) 1.8 (1.2) <0.001 -46%
Carbohydrate, total, g 233 (118) 213 (82) <0.001 -9%
Sugar, total, g 102 (73) 95 (50) 0.005 -7%
Added sugar, g 59 (64) 47 (40) <0.001 -20%
Fiber, g 16.7 (7.9) 16.8 (7.1) 0.6 1%
Vitamin-A, RE5 1649 (3599) 1146 (2241) <0.001 -31%
Vitamin-D, µg 6.1 (9.8) 8.1 (9.3) <0.001 33%
Vitamin-E, α –TE6 7.8 (6.5) 10.5 (6.6) <0.001 35%
Vitamin-C, mg 80 (85) 102 (81) <0.001 28%
Calcium, mg 1071 (624) 923 (428) <0.001 -14%

1t-test

2SFA: Saturated fatty acids

3LPUFA: Long-chain polyunsaturated fattu acids

4FA: Fatty acids

5RE: Retinol equivalents

6TE: Tochoferol equivalents


 

 

 

Table III. Energy nutrients, surveys 1990, 2002 and 2010/11, E%, mean (sd)

 

1990

n=1240

2002

n=1174

2010/11

n=1312

Protein 17.4 (3.3) 17.9 (5.5) 18.1 (4.5)
Fat, total 41.0 (6.8) 35.3 (9.4) 36.2 (7.3)
SFA1 20.0 (4.4) 14.7 (5.0) 14.5 (3.9)
Trans-FA2 2.0 (1.2) 1.4 (0.9) 0.8 (0.4)
Carbohydrate,total 40.7 (7.3) 45.3 (10.0) 42.2 (7.9)
Added sugar 8.4 (6.1) 10.6 (8.6) 8.9 (6.2)

1SFA: Saturated fatty acids

2FA: Fatty acids


 

 

Table IV. Number and percent of people having difficulties making ends meet, categorized by employment, age, sex, education and residence, n (%)

 

Very

easy

n=242

Rather

easy

n=340

Neither

nor

n=377

Rather difficult

n=237

Very difficult

n=106

Employed n=817 159 (19) 215 (26) 240 (29) 142 (17) 61 (7)
Student n=92 18 (20) 27 (29) 22 (24) 16 (17) 9 (10)

Employed and student

n=119

19 (16) 31 (26) 37 (31) 28 (24) 4 (3)
Retired n=140 35 (25) 38 (27) 40 (29) 20 (14) 7 (5)

Disabled

n=31

2 (6) 5 (16) 6 (19) 10 (32) 8 (26)

Unemployed

n=40

1 (3) 6 (15) 11 (28) 11 (28) 11 (28)

Men

 n=632

143 (23) 165 (26) 170 (27) 103 (16) 49 (8)
Women n=680 99 (15) 176 (26) 207 (31) 134 (20) 57 (8)

18-30 years

n=250

43 (17) 73 (30) 75 (30) 43 (17) 12 (5)

31-60 years

n=744

120 (16) 176 (24) 227 (31) 147 (20) 72 (10)

61-80 years

n=318

79 (25) 91 (29) 75 (24) 47 (15) 22 (7)

Education 11

n=410

59 (15) 106 (26) 122 (30) 72 (18) 46 (11)

Education 22

n=447

78 (18) 113 (25) 134 (30) 90 (20) 30 (7)

Education 33

n=451

104 (23) 121 (27) 121 (27) 73 (16) 29 (6)

Capital area

n=797

147 (19) 213 (27) 231 (29) 137 (17) 60 (8)
Outs capital area4 n=515 95 (18) 127 (25% 146 (28) 100 (19) 46 (9)

 

1Elementary education

2Trade, secondary school

         
3University          
4Outside capital area          

 

 

 

 

Table V. Daily mean consumption of selected food items or nutrients considered indicators of healthy diet among people finding it easy or difficult to make ends meet.

 

Easy1

n=582

Difficult2

n=343

p-value3
Fruit, total 126 107 0,02
Vegetables, total 123 110 0.03
Whole grain bread 25 16 <0.001
Fish 48 44 0.6
Red meat 74 67 0.3
Highly proc.meat4 21 26 0.03
Sweets 16 18 0.3
Soft drinks, total 178 256 <0.001
    Sugared soft dr.5 112 172 <0.001
    Sugarless soft dr.5 66 84 0.4
Cookies and cakes 50 44 0.2
Hard fat6, E% 15.4 15.3 0.8
Added sugar, E% 8.5 9.8 0.002
Fiber, g/10 MJ7 20.3 19.7 0.1
PUFA8, E% 5.9 5.9 0.5
Sodium, mg 3296 3033 0.03
Sodium, mg/kcal 1.56 1.57 0.6

1 Rather easy and very easy combined

2 Rather difficult and very difficult combined

3Linear regression, adjusted according to sex, age, education and residence

4Highly processed meat

5Soft drinks

6Hard fat=SFA and trans FA combined

7MJ: Megajoule

8PUFA: Polyunsaturated fatty acids









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